Monday, October 31, 2011


Human rights defenders at risk!

The Observatory for the Protection of Human Rights Defenders (the 
 Observatory) releases on Monday, October 24 its 14th Annual Report on the situation of human rights defenders during a press conference held at the United Nations Headquarters in New York. 

Sunday, October 30, 2011

Fatou Bensouda, 3 Others Named For Next Int'l Court Prosecutor

Deputy Prosecutor ICC,  Fatou Bensouda
Tuesday, 25 October 2011 17:46

(AP) - Four candidates were named Tuesday as possible successors for International Criminal Court Prosecutor Luis Moreno-Ocampo when his nine-year term ends next year.
Moreno-Ocampo's current deputy, Fatou Bensouda of Gambia, is considered by many observers to be the front-runner. Her candidacy is supported by the African Union, which has often voiced criticism of Moreno-Ocampo for only opening investigations in African nations.
The short list also features Andrew Cayley, a co-prosecutor at the Khmer Rouge tribunal in Cambodia who comes from Britain; Tanzania's Chief Justice Mohamed Chande Othman; and Robert Petit, a counsel at the crimes against humanity and war crimes section of Canada's Justice Department.

Federal Gov’t export another group of expatriates to Banjul

Nigeria TAC Volunteers
The Federal Government of the Republic of Nigeria this week sent another group of 16 members of the Technical Aid Corps (TAC) Volunteers to Banjul, The Gambia to boost the education sector. 
In as many years, the TAC has exported professionals in various African-Caribbean countries to work as volunteers in various sectors under governments. The volunteers, who will spend a two-year stint in The Gambia, were received at the Nigerian High Commission in Banjul on October 27 by The Gambia Ministry of Basic and Secondary Education (MoBSE).

Friday, October 28, 2011

Trust should exist between journalists and security personnel

Minister Sonko (L) with Pa Malick Faye, Daily Observer MD

Gambia’s Minister of Interior, Mr. Ousman Sonko Saturday remark that “trust must exist between journalists and security personnel” when he presided over the opening ceremony of the 4th Anniversary and 2nd Congress of the Young Journalists Association of The Gambia (YJAG).
Mr. Sonko, who was honoured by the rare opportunity given to him, said journalists should be on familiar terms with security chiefs, stating that “it should not be difficult for an officer to confirm that someone has been arrested.” “But sometimes it could be difficult to tell immediately what next will happen to the person, what measures will be taken against the person or why he or she is arrested.”

YJAG elects new executive committee

New YJAG Executive Committee
L-R-seated: Bakai Njie, Modou S. Joof,
Mariam Saine, Lamin Jahateh
Standing: Fatou Jallow, Omar Wally, 
Amadou Wuyeh Manga & Sulayman Ceesay
The Young Journalists Association of The Gambia (YJAG) on Saturday elected a new executive committee, headed by Mr Modou S. Joof, news editor of The Voice newspaper, to steer the affairs of the association until 2014.
This decision followed the end of a two-year stint of the former executive committee, which was headed by Mr Assan Sallah, news editor at the Daily Observer newspaper, whose two-year term ended on September 16, 2011.
The 4th Anniversary and 2nd Congress of YJAG was held at the Kanifing Municipal Council Multipurpose Complex, Jimpex Road, Kanifing, under the theme “The Role of Journalists in Elections” with training on “Election Reporting for YJAG Members” intended to give the participants a better understanding of their position and responsibilities in election reportage.  


Mr. Modou S. Joof

Prepared and presented by Mr Modou S. Joof, YJAG Assistant Secretary General, @ the 4th Anniversary and Congress of YJAG on October 22, 2011 @ the Kanifing Municipal Council Multipurpose Complex, Jimpex Road, Kanifing

Africa Media Watch…

Nigerian journalist shot dead / Islamist group claims responsibility
A public transport motorcylist drives past a mosque in central Maiduguri, in 2010 (AFP/File, Pius Utomi Ekpei)
Plus more....

Africa News Round-up…

  • ECOWAS pledges to address child rights challenges in West Africa 
  • High-level meeting of experts on improving regional aviation sector opens in Accra 
  • Report Underlines Pressing Reintegration Needs of Migrants Returning from Libya 
  • MSF seeks swift release of two abducted staff without use of force, Continues medical activities to assist Somali population 
  • Bill and Melinda Gates Applaud Progress Against Malaria While Urging Renewed Effort
  • Plus more.......

Thursday, October 27, 2011

Justice Minister Edward Gomez ‘fails to fulfill pledge’

Gambia Justice Minister, Edward Gomez
The Gambia’s Justice Minister, Edward Gomez has failed to fulfill a pledge of D10, 000 he made to the Young Journalists Association of The Gambia (YJAG) more than a year ago.
The minister, a private lawyer at the time, promised to give the association the money after he presented a paper on “Understanding Media Laws in The Gambia”, a training organised by YJAG for its members on February 9, 2010.   

Human rights are inviolable and sacrosanct – says Gambia Justice Minister

Gambia Justice Minister, Edward Gomez

“One cannot continue to oppress people and set aside their rights. Human rights are inviolable and sacrosanct. They should always be upheld and defended by governments, their agents and judicial systems,” said Mr. Edward Gomez, Gambia’s Minister of Justice.
The justice-minister, who recently came under attack by press freedom watchdogs for comments he made over the whereabouts of missing journalist, Chief Ebrima Manneh, was addressing participants on Wednesday at the opening session of the Forum on the Participation of Non-Governmental Organisations in the 50th Ordinary Session of the African Commission on Human and People’s Rights which was held from 19th to 21st October, 2011 in Banjul, The Gambia.

Experts meet in Banjul to chart on implementation of the human rights strategy for Africa

The African Union (AU) on Friday kick started a three day consultation workshop in Banjul, focusing on how to implement and monitor the Human Rights Strategy for Africa (HRSA).
It is part of efforts to strengthen the African human rights system, to deepen the culture of democracy and to ensure the promotion of human rights on the continent. The experts are expected to develop a roadmap for the implementation of the action plan of the HRSA.
 The meeting is being attended by representatives from AU organs with a human rights mandate, regional courts and tribunals, national human rights institutions (NHRI), partners and civil society.

IMF notice progress on economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa

But warn on negative aspect of risk to global economy
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) on Wednesday released the “October 2011 Regional Economic Outlook: Sub-Saharan Africa” with the growth rate expected to increase in 2012 to nearly six percent, because of one-off boosts to production in a number of countries.
However, it said caution should be taken regarding the negative aspect of danger to the global economy.
“Growth has remained strong in the region in recent years, and most low-income countries in Africa weathered the global economic slowdown well. 

Rural Women’s Day: What Has Road Network Got To Do With Women’s Rights?

The Author: Amie Bojang Sissoho, GAMCOTRAP

(Mansa Banko) As an advocate of women’s empowerment and to fulfil the calling of my profession I thought the only thing I can do is to inform those in position of power and authority through this article that we all owe it to women’s right to health and economic empowerment to construct the minimum standard of road networks in rural Gambia.   

Dear Editor  

Traveling to one of the remote areas of The Gambia, Wuli East with a GAMCOTRAP team to undertake a training supported by UNFPA has turned out to be a journey of reflection.


The Commonwealth Symbol

 20 October 2011Banjul, The Gambia

In line with the commitment of the Commonwealth to support democratic processes in member states, I visited The Gambia from 18 to 20 October 2011.

During my visit, I met senior government officials, including those from the National Assembly, and Judiciary, as well as the Independent Election Commission and the international community. I also met leaders of political parties and the civil society.

Wednesday, October 26, 2011

Breaking News: Gambia Press Union Granted Observer Status at the African Commission

Modou S. Joof, News Editor of The Voice newspaper, Banjul, The Gambia
The North Bank Evening Standard has just gathered that the Banjul-based African Commission on Human and People's Rights has granted "Observer Status" to the Gambia Press Union (GPU) about an hour ago. 

The Gambia Press Union applied for observer status under the ARTICLE 19/GPU European Commission-funded project.

Tuesday, October 25, 2011

FAJ Urges Govt to End Silence Over Whereabouts of Missing Journalist

Today: FAJ Condemns Brutal Murder of Television Journalist in Nigeria

19 October 2011
FAJ President, Omar Faruk Osman
The leadership of the Federation of African Journalists (FAJ), the African group of the International Federation of Journalists (IFJ), today met Gambian Justice Minister Edward Gomez to demand that his government break its silence over the whereabouts of journalist Chief Ebrima Manneh who disappeared in 2006.
The FAJ President Omar Faruk Osman and his Vice President Foster Dongozi challenged the minister, who is also the government's Attorney General, to reveal where the missing journalist is following the minister's recent declaration that Chief Manneh is alive.

IFJ Calls on Journalists to Join Global Wage Survey

24 October 2011
The International Federation of Journalists (IFJ) today calls on journalists around the world to take part in a global wage survey "WageIndicator" to campaign for decent pay to journalists and to narrow the gender pay gap in journalism.

In a letter addressed to its affiliates, the IFJ called on all its members to participate in a global wage survey conducted by WageIndicator, to measure wages of over 1,500 different occupations and 400 industries in over 56 countries around the world.

Rice experts in Africa adopt a new way of doing business for greater impact

As part of a global programme on rice science that has laid out concrete and quantifiable key impacts to benefit the poor, the hungry, and the environment in the next 25 years, rice experts in Africa have adopted a more interdisciplinary and product-oriented approach in order to deliver greater development impacts, says the Africa Rice Centre (WARDA).
The innovative programme known as the Global Rice Science Partnership (GRiSP) aims to mobilize the very best of the world’s rice science and involve the widest range of stakeholders possible in the technology generation and dissemination process to address, among others, Africa’s major rice development challenges.

Mumia still on death row, but executions of journalists on the wane

Outcome already decided in trial of Swedish journalists?

GTAFIWU News Alert!

Judgement on the transport union case delayed

Judgement for the seven accused members of the Gambia Transport, Agriculture, Food and Industrial Workers Union (GTAFIWU) has been postponed until the first week of November. 

Confirming this development, the union president Mr Ousman Drammeh said he was informed by the union Lawyer Pap Cheyassin Secka that the Magistrate presiding over has informed him (the Lawyer) that the Magistrate will not be able to make it to Farafenni Thursday for the judgement slated on 6 October 2011 and has therefore decided to postpone the case. The Magistrate is said to be attending other functions.

World hunger report 2011: Small, import-dependent countries in Africa at risk

A joint report, by FAO, IFAD and WFP has warned that small, import-dependent countries, particularly in Africa, are especially at risk of becoming more vulnerable to poverty and food insecurity.

Many of them still face severe problems following the world food and economic crises of 2006-2008, the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and the World Food Programme (WFP) said in “The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2011″ (SOFI), an annual flagship report they jointly produced this year.

Authorities must take care of poor prison condition

Dr. Amadou Scattred Janneh, former Gambia Information Minister


L-R: Omar Jallow, PPP; Henry Gomez, GDPD; Hamat Bah, NRP; Halifa Sllah, PDOIS, Ousainou Darboe, UDP; and Mai Fatty, GMC
Gambia opposition parties finally put an end to the many speculations as to what was going on behind the scene on the proposed united front against the incumbent, president Yahya Jammeh.
With media reports rife on "failed talks" ahead of the November 24 presidential poll in Gambia, the month-long negotiation, according to a press statement ended without the sought for unity. Read on.... 

Monday, October 24, 2011

Countdown Begins: 7 Days to 7 Billion People

Pix: Thinkstock

UNITED NATIONS, NEW YORK, October 24, 2011/PRNewswire via African Press Organization (APO)/ — More than 50 Musicians, 13 countries, 1 world anthem: United Nations Population Fund debuts music video on Facebook

Movement calls for individual actions to be featured on

Thursday, October 20, 2011

Gaddafi killed as Libya's revolt takes hometown

AP – This image made available by the Al Jazeera television channel, claims to show former Libyan leader Moammer …

Tuesday, October 18, 2011

Economic think-tank recognise crucial role of Islamic Banking

Participants and facilitators (pix:dailyobserver)
Islamic Banking, as a variant of interest free banking, a system bound by Shariah (Islamic Law) requires that financial products, from mortgages to savings accounts be structured to comply with the prohibition of payment or taking of interest.
In recent years, there has been a significant growth in Islamic financial services globally, and global economic think tank have projected that “this growth will continue at a rapid pace” with an expanding demand for its products, even conventional banks are been drawn into providing Islamic financial services.

Gambia ends pitiful AFCON campaign

Gambia coach, Paul Put (pix:cafonline)
The Gambia Scorpions on October 8 ended a pitiful African Nations Cup qualifying campaign in a draw (1-1) with Burkina Faso in their home ground, the Independent Stadium, Bakau.
Gambia went into the game with heads held low and hoping to gain nothing near a qualification spot, having shamefully lost to Namibia in Windhoek earlier.
On Saturday, the players, being mentally prepared to play for pride even lost a great part of it hence the belief was a win will do just that, with favourites Burkina Faso, who topped Group F, grabbing a late equalizer owing to a lack of concentration or determination at the Scorpion’s defence.

Saturday, October 15, 2011

Exclusive: Richards Released Friday

Moses Richards
Moses B. Richards Johnson, 51, a private Gambian lawyer has been released on Friday morning on presidential pardon, The North Bank Evening Standard can reveal.

The District Magistrates' Court in the Gambian capital, Banjul, on Monday September 19, 2011, found Richards guilty of "sedition" and "giving false information" and subsequently sentence him to a prison term of two years six months. 

"On Friday October 14, he was released on a presidential pardon following a letter from the office of the president to the family a week earlier confirming his pardon," according to sources. 

PURA: Netpage, Unique Solutions to face fines

Internet services providers, Unique Solutions and Netpage will be fined for “failing to show up” at an October 1, 2011 Consumer Forum in the Gambian capital, Banjul, according to the organiser, the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority (PURA).

The conspicuous absence of the two institutions means consumers could not address their concerns regarding the services they provide in open and frank terms, leaving PURA without an option but to bring charges against them.

However, PURA fall short of telling the 4th Consumer Parliament how much it will charge them, however, an official claim they will consult amongst themselves and come up with whatever charges applicable.

Candid segment in sports

A weekly overview of Gambian sports impacting on national development, by Kebba Yorro Manneh - Social Commentator

Kebba Yorro Manneh, Educationist & Social Commentator
The brouhaha in our sports will continue so long as we do not sit as stakeholders to see eye to eye. The blame game and suspicion will be the order of the day.

Reference to my earlier exposure on controversies in sports and reiterating dialogue as the way forward, apparently, I am not being listened to as that counsel would have remedied the fiasco in our sports sector these days.

NRP’s Hamat Bah perplexed by media reportage on ‘opposition alliance’

Hamat Bah, NRP Leader not happy with reportage
  •  WOJAG President says Governments must promote and protect gender needs  
  • Gambian Editor urges government to review repressive media laws 
  • GPDP’s Henry Gomez unhappy with ‘short campaign’ 
  • Gambia: TB remain a major public health concern 
  • RLG Communications to inject $2M in mobile repair project 
  • Gambia remain committed to ECOWAS ‘single currency’   
  • Gambia College slam for violating Act of Parliament  
  • Teachers’ needs should be given priority in national education planning 
  • Plus More...

Thursday, October 13, 2011

The Gambia UPDATE:

ECOWAS Court adjourns hearing on Gambian government request for review of two landmark judgements

(MFWA) The ECOWAS Community Court in Abuja, Nigeria, on September 26, 2011 adjourned indefinitely its hearing of applications for reviews of two landmark judgements brought before it by Gambian authorities involving two Gambian journalists.

The first relates to the illegal arrests and torture of Musa Saidykhan, a former editor-in-chief of banned The Independent newspaper. In the second case, the Gambian government was ordered to release Chief Ebrima Manneh, a foreign editor of privately-owned pro-government the Daily Observer newspaper and compensate him, costs were awarded against the authorities in both cases.

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

ALERT: Police Grill GPU Executive Director

Mr Alota (L), M Njie (R) were pickedup in June (Pix: Dailynews)
In a brief media statement, the GPU said Mr Aloa Ahmed Alota, Executive Director of The Gambia Press Union (GPU) was on Friday afternoon invited by police for questioning at the police headquarters in Banjul.

"He was subjected to questioning over the allege abscond of Nanama Keita, the former Sports Editor of the Daily Observer Newspaper, who is standing trial for allegedly giving false information to a public officer," the GPU Secretary General, Gibairu Janneh wrote.

A Free and Independent Press is the Lifeline of Progress – Minister Cham

Participants @ the training
A free and independent press is the lifeblood of a strong functioning society and a lifeline to progress, say Gambia’s Minister of Information and Communication Infrastructure, Alhagie Cham. 

“Therefore, freedom of expression is very essential in maintaining a form of government that can be trusted by the people it serves,” Mr Cham said, two months after the Gambia Government said it is open to “media reform” during a Commonwealth Forum for Journalists in Banjul.

Tuesday, October 11, 2011

Gambia: Justice minister urged to prove claim that missing journalist is still alive

The Paris-based Reporters Without Borders have called  on Gambian justice minister Edward Gomez to quickly produce evidence of his claim that “Chief” Ebrima Manneh, a journalist who has been missing since July 2006, is still alive. 
In a newspaper interview last weekend, the minister insisted that Manneh was alive and “somewhere.” 

Monday, October 10, 2011

AU says ‘it will not cooperate’ with ICC on Gaddafi’s indictment

Colonel Gaddafi, Libyan Leader (pix: onislam)
The African Union (AU) has vowed not to cooperate in the execution of an arrest warrant on the embattled Libyan leader Colonel Maumar Gaddafi issued by the Pre-Trial Chamber of the International Criminal Court (ICC) a few months ago.

The decision was reached by the Assembly of Heads of States during the 17th AU Summit held in Malabo, Equatorial Guinea from June 23-July 1, 2011, under the Theme: “Accelerating Youth Empowerment for Sustainable Development”. 

Gambian Social Justice Activist to Attend Global Workshop – Fair

Gambian Journalist, Mamadou Edrisa Njie
(Mansa Banko) Mamadou Edrisa Njie Social Justice Activist cum Journalist from The Gambia will be attending a Global Youth Innovation Workshop Fair from 10- 13 October in Cononou, Benin.

 The Youth Innovation Workshop Fair is organized to honor and celebrate young entrepreneurs’ achievements. 
The specific objectives of this event are: To bring together youths to share their perspectives and ideas in relation to their business models, to work toward solutions to common problems, and to enable the participants to showcase their products and services and share best practices.
Phelps Stokes and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), in collaboration with the Government of Benin, Activos Culturales Afro (ACUA), Palmares Fundacao, and Give1Project organized the even and cordially invited Gambian social justice activists cum journalist to attend as a participant and a facilitator.  

Qualified teams for Orange CAN 2012

( Gabon, Equatorial Guinea (co-hosts), Niger, Angola, Botswana, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Senegal, Tunisia, Zambia, Burkina Faso,Morocco, Libya and Sudan.
Libya and Sudan secured the two places at the 2012 Africa Cup of Nations reserved for the best runners-up from qualifying groups containing three or four teams.
Group A
Cape Verde

Sunday, October 9, 2011

Ghana: Former Vice President to chair Security Watch Africa Awards/Lecture

 Alhaji Aliu Mahama, a former Vice President of Ghana
(MyCommunityPortal) Former Vice President, Alhaji Aliu Mahama has been invited to chair this years Security Watch Africa Awards/Lecture, scheduled to take place in The Gambia. 

It is the 7th time in a row that the event is being organized to recognize personalities who have distinguished themselves in the field of security in Africa, after being successfully held in Ghana, Nigeria and South Africa, in previous years.

Sunday, October 2, 2011

Decisions adopted during the 17th African Union Summit

17th AU Summit, Malabo, Equotorial Giunea (Pix: AU)
MALABO, Equatorial Guinea, July 4, 2011/African Press Organization (APO)/ — African Union (AU) Heads of State and Government meeting at their 17th Ordinary Session in Malabo, Equatorial Guinea, from 23 June to 1st July 2011, under the Theme: “‘Accelerating Youth Empowerment for Sustainable Development”, adopted the following Decisions.

On the theme “‘Accelerating of Youth empowerment for sustainable development”, the Assembly decided:
(i) that all Member States should advance the youth agenda and adopt policies and mechanisms towards the creation of safe, decent and competitive employment opportunities by accelerating the implementation of the Youth Decade Plan of Action (2009-2018) and the Ouagadougou 2004 Plan of Action on Employment Promotion and Poverty Alleviation;

NUSOJ welcomes AU apology over Malaysian journalist’s killing

Senegal Singer N'Dour

NUSOJ welcomes AU apology over Malaysian journalist’s killing
The National Union of Somali Journalists (NUSOJ) on September 27 welcomed the apology tendered by the African Union (AU) over the killing of a Malaysian Journalist, Noramfaizul Mohd Nor, and the injuring of another, Aziz Reza Mazlan, on September 2, 2011 in Mogadishu by African Union peacekeeping mission in Somalia (AMISOM) deployed to keep peace in Somalia.

NYSS Ex-Corps completes training on agricultural entrepreneurship

Six ex-corps members of the Gambia National Youth Service Scheme (NYSS) have completed a month-long training on various aspects of agricultural production at the Songhai Centre in Porto Novo, the capital of Benin. 

The six (Cherno Barry, Fatoumata Bah, Mot Lamin Bah, Abdoulie Sallah, Basirou Boye and Saibana Camara) are among seventy-one youths drawn from Member countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), as part of an ECOWAS capacity building programme to encourage and empower Community youth for self- employment.

Police making efforts to bring journalist Nanama Keita to Court

Journalist-Nanama Keita
Assistant Superintend of Police, Mr. Manneh who stood in for senior prosecutor Superintend Sainey Joof, has told the Banjul Magistrate Court that efforts are ongoing to ensure Gambian journalist Nanama Keita appear in court.
The former Sports Editor of the pro-government newspaper, the Daily Observer failed to appear in court for the second time in an ongoing “false information” trial against him.
He has denied any wrong doing since June. On September 12, the lower Court ordered his arrest after he failed to appear in court for the first time.

Saturday, October 1, 2011

‘ACA Seal’ to increase competitiveness of African cashew

ACA President Idrissa Kilangi signs agreement with food processors on ACA Seal
The African Cashew Alliance (ACA) Quality and Sustainability Seal is projected to bring great results for the African cashew industry, especially the desire to increase the competitiveness of African cashew in the world.
The ACA Seal, a trademark derived from the African Cashew Alliance Business Code of Conduct, was launched on September 20, 2011 during the 6th ACA Annual Conference which “brought the cashew world together” in Banjul, The Gambia.

Gambia: Ideal gateway for cashew export in SeGaBi region

Cashew industry projected to transform agriculture in Africa

The Gambia is well known for its finest quality products of raw cashew nuts; hence it has been identified as the ideal gateway for cashew export in the SeGaBi (Senegal, Gambia and Guinea Bissau) sub-region.
The country has seen a tremendous increase in cashew production in the last five years with an estimated total of about 20,000 tonnes in 2011, compared to 6,000 tonnes in 2006. Given the prevailing good climatic condition, the Cashew Alliance of The Gambia (CAG) has projected a yield of approximately 25,000 tonnes in the next cashew season. 

“Gambian cashew is one of the best in the sub-region with an outturn of 50-56 percent and nut count of 190-210 per kilogramme and is highly sought after by international buyers,” the CAG said on Tuesday.

Sixth ACA Confab offers unprecedented business opportunities

ACA President, Idrisa Kilangi of Tanzania
The President of the African Cashew Alliance (ACA), Mr Idrisa Kilangi has said the 6th ACA Annual Conference brought with it a comprehensive agenda which offers unparalleled business prospects.  
“We have organised a multifaceted programme offering unprecedented business opportunities for anyone with an interest in the cashew sector – from local producers to international stakeholders,” Mr Kilangi said in his welcome remarks on Monday.
“With the launch of the first World Cashew Expo and the simultaneous meeting of the Global Cashew Task Force, the 6th ACA Conference is promising to turn into one of the biggest cashew gatherings to date, living up to this year’s ambitious aim of “Bringing the Cashew World Together!”

Landmark regional declaration paves way for access to information

(ARTICLE 19/IFEX) - Cape Town 21.09.2011 - ARTICLE 19 welcomes the recent adoption of the African Platform on Access to Information Declaration (APAI). The APAI was released at the inaugural Pan African Conference on Access to Information, held between 17 - 19th September 2011 in Cape Town, South Africa. The landmark declaration was drafted by nine African groups working on freedom of expression, access to information, and the media, including ARTICLE 19.